Looking deeper still and conducting, further research into this area, I was taken to work by Hansen & Gorton (2013); they critiqued numerous analytical definitions of ‘affect’ provided by Shouse (2005), Blackman & Cromby (2007), Clough (2007), Cvetkovich (2003), Ahmed (2010), Highmore (2010), and Stewart and Wissinger (2007).,However, regarding ‘affect’, I found this definition by Hansen & Gorton’s (2013 p34) a cause for concern, especially when considering videogames and games design:

“the slipperiness of the term and its usage within academic study” and “the notion of in-between-ness and liminality is structured into the definition of affect and makes coming to full interpretations of emotion online increasingly impossible.”,As the main area of focus within the theoretical framework of my PhD is Games Design within the context of videogames, doubt was instilled within me by Hansen & Gorton’s secondary research.,Hansen & Gorton go onto further analyse this, considering that “affect is a sort of glue”; when applied to ideas, values and objects (such as videogames), they can be affective and remain with us throughout life, both as individuals and as a means of “sustaining gatherings of people or ideas” i.e. the audiences themselves.,As ‘People’ are a key object of study within my research, I therefore decided to firstly preface addressing any further research into ‘affect’ along with research into the ‘videogame design and development process’ by researching and reviewing the existing organisational structures within which these ‘people’ (i.e. ‘the game developers’) work. read more

If you're familiar with Java, this is one of the biggest pain points of the language that you can try and solve with things like annotations and static analysis or maybe the optional type which eventually came out in Java 8.,Now, because this was a language that was built from Java and needing to work with Java, it had to have a really strong interop story, similar to how Scala can talk to Java compiled code or Groovy can use Java compiled code, this language needed to do the same.,So if you use a language like Scala, like Groovy, it has really good interop with code that's written in Java.,But sometimes when you're writing in Java and interacting with a library that's written in Scala or Groovy, there's things that can look a little weird and kind of have to jump through some extra hoops because of how that more powerful language works that you can't express the same thing in Java.,Now, in order to reuse a lot of the things that were present on the JVM, they added something that's common in maybe C# which is extension functions, the ability to hang additional functionality off of a type that you don't control.

Difficulty refers to the amount of skill required by the player to progress through a game experience (Suddaby).,A skill can be defined as, “…  a combination of mental and physical effort and capabilities… [Players] can vary heavily in skill, depending on their previous experiences, motor skills, cognitive capabilities in the game, etc.” (Valerio).,Scaling difficulty could overlap with dynamic difficulty but those games can make their games easier on the fly without consulting the player.,Designed difficulty is when enemies, levels, puzzles, and other interactions are hand-crafted to provide a challenge that requires the player to use learned skills to overcome challenges in new ways.,One last way to create difficulty in this category is to add Mechanic Depth or provide the player with a challenge that changes the way they think about the currently established rules.

D&D pioneered and popularized an array of RPG conventions that are now video game and tabletop staples, like experience points (XP), levels, loot, character classes and boss fights.,While still a high school science teacher, University of Connecticut assistant professor Stephen Slota designed a unit-length game to teach human reproduction and sexually transmitted diseases.,“The students worked in teams of three to control a character avatar in a fictitious village, and their goal was to engage in an epidemiological study of the area by investigating locales and speaking to non-player characters as enacted by the instructor,” said Slota, who edited Exploding the Castle: Rethinking How Video Games & Game Mechanics Can Shape The Future Of Education, a collection of game-based learning essays.,Rezzly’s 3D GameLab, the University of Michigan’s GradeCraft, NEXED’s Answerables and Classcraft are gameful learning management systems that have tapped into the class-as-game zeitgeist to help educators keep track of quests, levels, experience points, badges and other game features.,Canadian teacher Justin Matheson says that his Grade 6 students loved the sword-and-sorcery motif, and he credits Classcraft’s video game qualities for fostering perseverance.

Cole, 75, and four other members of Craftsmen for Kids — a group of 16 retired men from central Ohio who formed a nonprofit organization to make and donate wooden educational toys — then began carrying in dozens of their latest creations.,Soon, 36 children from low-income families in the Head Start program in Logan were happily playing with wooden barns, trucks, blocks and doll beds, among other items.,Chris DeLamatre, director of the Hocking Athens Perry Community Action Program, which runs Head Start programs in those three counties, shook her head in wonder as she watched the men unload boxes from their gray pickup.,The men of Craftsmen for Kids make toys for Head Start programs in 15 counties, as well as for a program at the Ohio Reformatory for Women in Marysville and several battered women’s shelters.,“It’s nice to have high-quality wooden toys, because at home, our kids see a lot of plastic toys or they’re on their tablets with screens,” said Gwynyth Chmara-Huff, a teacher in the Newark Head Start program.

A station was set up with a view to upgrading as a centre to showcase the progress on community radio projector in the Asian region.,The SLBC hierarchy was totally ignorant regarding the mass appeal and close affinity the MCR shared with the rural community and its integral role as a publicity medium at the grassroots level.,Inventories of all items at every MCR centre and the balance funds were diverted through the UNDP and the UNESCO mission found no discrepancy in receipts and expenditure.,The equipment for the Embilipitiya MCR centre were taken over by the SLBC authorities.,Jayaweera initiated the Palaly Radio Centre which provided the forces with a strong publicity arm.

The acronym, which he sets out in his bestseller Flourish: A Visionary New Understanding Of Happiness And Well-Being, stands for just about everything you need to know about fostering happiness:

Seligman’s research suggests workers are happiest when they’re lost in a meaningful project, working toward a higher goal, or being helpful.,(Interestingly, research shows that the one time money does make people happy on a lasting basis is when it improves their social rank (i.e., makes them richer than their friends and work colleagues).,“The goals you set, the culture you foster, the habits you cultivate, the way you interact with workers, how you think about stress—all these can be managed to increase your staff’s happiness and your chances of success,” says Achor.,Developing new habits, nurturing your employees, and thinking positively about stress are good ways to start (and next up we’ll provide more ways you can support a culture of happiness among your team).,In their book The Progress Principle, Harvard researchers Teresa Amabile and Steven Kramer make a strong case that of all the things that can boost motivation during a workday, the single most important is making progress on meaningful work. read more

The first time my stories were out there.,When I was young, my maximum engagement, as a person, was with stories more than people around me which was a very strange thing.,If you pick up a love story in the 80s and you pick up a love story of today, the basic plot is going to be the same thing– girl meets boy, they cannot be together and there is a conflict and finally, they resolve that conflict and come together.,Cinema and stories are primarily a reflection of the times we are in.,Having said that, my latest movie that came out, Kedarnath, a lot of people got up and said this is the same old Hindu-Muslim cliché story.

With these ideas in mind, Alison Divine and colleagues at Canada's Western University paired with fellow researchers in the UK to investigate the possible role of Facebook in stimulating college students (always a good sample for social media research) to increase their exercise motivation.,Including in their study the role of relatedness, or psychological-need satisfaction in exercising with others, the Canada-UK team believed that college students who were more connected on Facebook, and also enjoyed sharing their exercise with other people, would have deeper and more lasting exercise motivation.,In SDT, the need for relatedness is a potent motivator, and “it is within the social context that needs can be promoted or thwarted, suggesting that Facebook, as a growing part of the social context for undergraduate students, has the potential to play a positive or negative role in exercise motivation and well-being.”,Hence, the authors believe in the perhaps counterintuitive view that Facebook can enhance exercise motivation in a positive sense by building support for physical activity among one’s general group of friends.,On the other hand, for some participants, the Facebook exercise motivation remained positive, allowing them to find enjoyment in physical activity via their feelings of connections to their friends.

Instead of teams and coaches, Gtramp has brand sponsorships and athlete meet-ups, with some trampoline companies sending flippers to do their thing in a slew of different countries.,And while some of the brands will host exhibition-like contests—take the Gtramp Games created by Greg Roe Trampoline and cosponsored by trampoline company SkyBound USA—on the whole flippers reject traditional competition-based sporting constructs in favor of an all-inclusive, supportive community.,When it finally becomes reasonable to do so, we set out from our hotel near the Venice Beach Boardwalk, and within a few minutes Maxx spots a kid wearing a pink T-shirt with bold, graphic palm trees on the back.,To hear their parents tell it, Solomon and Andrew have always been natural athletes, both with a tendency to throw themselves into whatever sport they tried.,Solomon started flipping—doing many of the same tricks Andrew was doing on his trampoline in L.A.—and the pair followed each other on Instagram (the Gtramp community was relatively small back then).