Difficulty refers to the amount of skill required by the player to progress through a game experience (Suddaby).,A skill can be defined as, “…  a combination of mental and physical effort and capabilities… [Players] can vary heavily in skill, depending on their previous experiences, motor skills, cognitive capabilities in the game, etc.” (Valerio).,Scaling difficulty could overlap with dynamic difficulty but those games can make their games easier on the fly without consulting the player.,Designed difficulty is when enemies, levels, puzzles, and other interactions are hand-crafted to provide a challenge that requires the player to use learned skills to overcome challenges in new ways.,One last way to create difficulty in this category is to add Mechanic Depth or provide the player with a challenge that changes the way they think about the currently established rules.

The acronym, which he sets out in his bestseller Flourish: A Visionary New Understanding Of Happiness And Well-Being, stands for just about everything you need to know about fostering happiness:

Seligman’s research suggests workers are happiest when they’re lost in a meaningful project, working toward a higher goal, or being helpful.,(Interestingly, research shows that the one time money does make people happy on a lasting basis is when it improves their social rank (i.e., makes them richer than their friends and work colleagues).,“The goals you set, the culture you foster, the habits you cultivate, the way you interact with workers, how you think about stress—all these can be managed to increase your staff’s happiness and your chances of success,” says Achor.,Developing new habits, nurturing your employees, and thinking positively about stress are good ways to start (and next up we’ll provide more ways you can support a culture of happiness among your team).,In their book The Progress Principle, Harvard researchers Teresa Amabile and Steven Kramer make a strong case that of all the things that can boost motivation during a workday, the single most important is making progress on meaningful work. read more

With these ideas in mind, Alison Divine and colleagues at Canada's Western University paired with fellow researchers in the UK to investigate the possible role of Facebook in stimulating college students (always a good sample for social media research) to increase their exercise motivation.,Including in their study the role of relatedness, or psychological-need satisfaction in exercising with others, the Canada-UK team believed that college students who were more connected on Facebook, and also enjoyed sharing their exercise with other people, would have deeper and more lasting exercise motivation.,In SDT, the need for relatedness is a potent motivator, and “it is within the social context that needs can be promoted or thwarted, suggesting that Facebook, as a growing part of the social context for undergraduate students, has the potential to play a positive or negative role in exercise motivation and well-being.”,Hence, the authors believe in the perhaps counterintuitive view that Facebook can enhance exercise motivation in a positive sense by building support for physical activity among one’s general group of friends.,On the other hand, for some participants, the Facebook exercise motivation remained positive, allowing them to find enjoyment in physical activity via their feelings of connections to their friends.

With these ideas in mind, Alison Divine and colleagues at Canada's Western University paired with fellow researchers in the UK to investigate the possible role of Facebook in stimulating college students (always a good sample for social media research) to increase their exercise motivation.,Including in their study the role of relatedness, or psychological-need satisfaction in exercising with others, the Canada-UK team believed that college students who were more connected on Facebook, and also enjoyed sharing their exercise with other people, would have deeper and more lasting exercise motivation.,In SDT, the need for relatedness is a potent motivator, and “it is within the social context that needs can be promoted or thwarted, suggesting that Facebook, as a growing part of the social context for undergraduate students, has the potential to play a positive or negative role in exercise motivation and well-being.”,Hence, the authors believe in the perhaps counterintuitive view that Facebook can enhance exercise motivation in a positive sense by building support for physical activity among one’s general group of friends.,On the other hand, for some participants, the Facebook exercise motivation remained positive, allowing them to find enjoyment in physical activity via their feelings of connections to their friends.

With these ideas in mind, Alison Divine and colleagues at Canada's Western University paired with fellow researchers in the UK to investigate the possible role of Facebook in stimulating college students (always a good sample for social media research) to increase their exercise motivation.,Including in their study the role of relatedness, or psychological-need satisfaction in exercising with others, the Canada-UK team believed that college students who were more connected on Facebook, and also enjoyed sharing their exercise with other people, would have deeper and more lasting��exercise motivation.,In SDT, the need for relatedness is a potent motivator, and “it is within the social context that needs can be promoted or thwarted, suggesting that Facebook, as a growing part of the social context for undergraduate students, has the potential to play a positive or negative role in exercise motivation and well-being.”,Hence, the authors believe in the perhaps counterintuitive view that Facebook can enhance exercise motivation in a positive sense by building support for physical activity among one’s general group of friends.,On the other hand, for some participants, the Facebook exercise motivation remained positive, allowing them to find enjoyment in physical activity via their feelings of connections to their friends.

With these ideas in mind, Alison Divine and colleagues at Canada's Western University paired with fellow researchers in the UK to investigate the possible role of Facebook in stimulating college students (always a good sample for social media research) to increase their exercise motivation.,Including in their study the role of relatedness, or psychological-need satisfaction in exercising with others, the Canada-UK team believed that college students who were more connected on Facebook, and also enjoyed sharing their exercise with other people, would have deeper and more lasting exercise motivation.,In SDT, the need for relatedness is a potent motivator, and “it is within the social context that needs can be promoted or thwarted, suggesting that Facebook, as a growing part of the social context for undergraduate students, has the potential to play a positive or negative role in exercise motivation and well-being.”,Hence, the authors believe in the perhaps counterintuitive view that Facebook can enhance exercise motivation in a positive sense by building support for physical activity among one’s general group of friends.,On the other hand, for some participants, the Facebook exercise motivation remained positive, allowing them to find enjoyment in physical activity via their feelings of connections to their friends.

With these ideas in mind, Alison Divine and colleagues at Canada's Western University paired with fellow researchers in the UK to investigate the possible role of Facebook in stimulating college students (always a good sample for social media research) to increase their exercise motivation.,Including in their study the role of relatedness, or psychological-need satisfaction in exercising with others, the Canada-UK team believed that college students who were more connected on Facebook, and also enjoyed sharing their exercise with other people, would have deeper and more lasting exercise motivation.,In SDT, the need for relatedness is a potent motivator, and “it is within the social context that needs can be promoted or thwarted, suggesting that Facebook, as a growing part of the social context for undergraduate students, has the potential to play a positive or negative role in exercise motivation and well-being.”,Hence, the authors believe in the perhaps counterintuitive view that Facebook can enhance exercise motivation in a positive sense by building support for physical activity among one’s general group of friends.,On the other hand, for some participants, the Facebook exercise motivation remained positive, allowing them to find enjoyment in physical activity via their feelings of connections to their friends.

With these ideas in mind, Alison Divine and colleagues at Canada's Western University paired with fellow researchers in the UK to investigate the possible role of Facebook in stimulating college students (always a good sample for social media research) to increase their exercise motivation.,Including in their study the role of relatedness, or psychological-need satisfaction in exercising with others, the Canada-UK team believed that college students who were more connected on Facebook, and also enjoyed sharing their exercise with other people, would have deeper and more lasting exercise motivation.,In SDT, the need for relatedness is a potent motivator, and “it is within the social context that needs can be promoted or thwarted, suggesting that Facebook, as a growing part of the social context for undergraduate students, has the potential to play a positive or negative role in exercise motivation and well-being.”,Hence, the authors believe in the perhaps counterintuitive view that Facebook can enhance exercise motivation in a positive sense by building support for physical activity among one’s general group of friends.,On the other hand, for some participants, the Facebook exercise motivation remained positive, allowing them to find enjoyment in physical activity via their feelings of connections to their friends.

With these ideas in mind, Alison Divine and colleagues at Canada's Western University paired with fellow researchers in the UK to investigate the possible role of Facebook in stimulating college students (always a good sample for social media research) to increase their exercise motivation.,Including in their study the role of relatedness, or psychological-need satisfaction in exercising with others, the Canada-UK team believed that college students who were more connected on Facebook, and also enjoyed sharing their exercise with other people, would have deeper and more lasting exercise motivation.,In SDT, the need for relatedness is a potent motivator, and “it is within the social context that needs can be promoted or thwarted, suggesting that Facebook, as a growing part of the social context for undergraduate students, has the potential to play a positive or negative role in exercise motivation and well-being.”,Hence, the authors believe in the perhaps counterintuitive view that Facebook can enhance exercise motivation in a positive sense by building support for physical activity among one’s general group of friends.,On the other hand, for some participants, the Facebook exercise motivation remained positive, allowing them to find enjoyment in physical activity via their feelings of connections to their friends.

Randomisation was to either the standard of care (SOC; with a clinic invitation letter to the male partner) or 1 of 5 intervention arms: the first arm provided women with 2 HIVST kits for their partners; the second and third arms provided 2 HIVST kits along with a conditional fixed financial incentive of $3 or $10; the fourth arm provided 2 HIVST kits and a 10% chance of receiving $30 in a lottery; and the fifth arm provided 2 HIVST kits and a phone call reminder for the women’s partners.,We investigated the impact of HIVST alone or with additional interventions on the uptake of testing and linkage to care or prevention among male partners of antenatal care clinic attendees in a novel adaptive trial.,The funder and sponsor had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript

Antenatal services in eastern and southern Africa have achieved near-universal HIV testing amongst pregnant women [ 10 ], providing an ideal opportunity for engaging male partners and extending benefits to the unborn child [ 11 ].,In Kenya, secondary distribution of HIVST kits by antenatal care clinic (ANC) attendees to their male partners increased uptake of HIV testing, although subsequent uptake of post-test HIV care and prevention services (“linkage”) was not optimally measured [ 7 ].,Assuming each cluster enrolled 40–60 women, and that 25% of male partners achieved the primary outcome in the SOC arm with a coefficient of variation (k) of 0.10 [ 12 ], 6 clusters per arm in stage 1 and 7 clusters per arm in stage 2 gave 80% power to detect a 15% absolute difference in proportions at a 20% and 5% significance level for stage 1 and stage 2, respectively. read more